Science-informed Machine Learning to Accelerate Real Time (SMART) Decisions in Subsurface Applications (U.S. DOE [Leidos] Contract CON00029885). Mr. Kelley is developing ML tools to rapidly evaluate distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) stress monitoring data for indicators of CO₂ leakage.
Development of A Non-Invasive Approach for Characterizing in-situ Stress in Deep Subsurface Geologic Formations Considered for CO₂ Storage (DOE AWARD DE-FE0031686) (2018-2021). Mr. Kelley is the principal investigator for a U.S. DOE project to develop a method to characterize geomechanical stress in subsurface geologic formations considered for CO₂ storage. The method uses a novel processing method to determine stress orientation from conventional seismic reflection data, laboratory triaxial ultrasonic velocity testing of rock core samples to characterize relationships between stress magnitude and ultrasonic p-wave and s-wave velocities, and numerical stress modeling to extrapolate regional stress field.
Carbon Storage Assurance Facility Enterprise (CarbonSAFE) – Phase I: Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pre-Feasibility (DOE Award DE-FE0029276) (2017-2018). Mr. Kelley was technical lead for a U.S. DOE study to assess commercial-scale CO₂ storage opportunities in the Michigan Basin geologic province (see Kelley et al., 2018).
U.S. DOE Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (U.S. DOE Award DE-FC26-05NT42589) (2013-2020). Mr. Kelley was responsible for evaluating the technical and cost effectiveness of multiple geophysical (seismic) monitoring technologies in conjunction with a large-scale CO₂ injection test (1 million tonnes) conducted in multiple pinnacle reef reservoirs in northern Michigan, including vertical seismic profile (VSP) geophysical survey, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) VSP, cross-well seismic, and microseismic monitoring.
Deep Borehole Field Test (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program Contract DE-NE0008467) (2016). Mr. Kelley was project manager responsible for developing plans to drill and test a 5-km deep borehole into crystalline rock to develop drilling and geologic, hydraulic, and geomechanical testing protocols for evaluating crystalline rock formations throughout the U.S. for hosting nuclear waste.
Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permit for the U.S. DOE FutureGen 2.0 CO₂ Storage Facility, Illinois (2012-2013). Mr. Kelley was part of the team that developed the UIC Class VI permit application for four CO₂ injection wells at the FutureGen 2.0 facility in Morgan County, Illinois. The permit application was submitted to the U.S. EPA Region 5 in March 2013, and in April 2014, the U.S. EPA issued the draft Class VI UIC permit for public comment, the first of its kind in the U.S.
Project Definition Phase for a Commercial-Scale CO₂ Capture and Storage Project (2010-2011). Mr. Kelley was part of a team that developed a design and +/- 25% life-cycle cost estimate for a 1.5 million tonnes per year CO₂ injection and storage facility for the American Electric Power (AEP) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project. Mr. Kelley’s responsibilities included reservoir characterization and testing to generate critical data to support the design/cost estimate and designing and costing the injection wells and monitoring wells and selected CO₂ monitoring technologies. Mr. Kelley also participated in agency and stakeholder meetings on behalf of AEP.
Pilot-Scale CO₂ Injection Project – U.S. DOE Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) Phase II (2009-2010). Mr. Kelley was technical lead for a 1,000 tonne pilot-scale CO₂ injection test in the Mount Simon Sandstone at Duke Energy’s East Bend Kentucky power plant. Mr. Kelley’s responsibilities included overall task lead, management of subcontractors, reservoir testing and characterization, well design and permitting, planning and coordinating the injection test, monitoring, and data analysis and reporting.
Geomechanical Assessment of Caprock-Reservoir Systems for CO₂ Storage (Ohio Development Services Agency Grant/Agreement OOE-CDO-D-13-22) (2013-2017). Mr. Kelley was Task Leader for a project to evaluate the long-term mechanical integrity of caprock formations in the Cambrian Ordovician geologic sequence in the Appalachian Basin portion of Ohio. The project used advanced geophysical logs, image logs, and core data to characterize spatial variability in mechanical rock properties throughout the study area; and, numerical modeling was performed with a coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical model to simulate CO₂-injection induced stress effects on the sealing capability and mechanical integrity of the caprock formations (see Raziperchikolaee, M. Kelley, and N. Gupta (2018)).
Deep Borehole Hydrologic Testing Program for the AEP Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) Project Definition Phase, American Electric Power Mountaineer Plant, New Haven West Virginia. Mr. Kelley was co-principal investigator responsible for designing and conducting a hydrologic testing program to evaluate the injection potential of several geologic formations within a 2,000-foot long open borehole section in an ~8,000-foot deep test well. Several types of open borehole hydrologic tests were completed, including a fluid-logging test of the entire open borehole, packer tests (slug, DST) for multiple intervals within the open borehole, and a constant-rate injection test. The testing successfully characterized key hydrologic properties of the tested formations and identified three candidate intervals for CO₂ injection.
Defining CO₂ Storage Options in Upper Ohio River Valley – Advanced Characterization of Geologic Reservoirs and Caprocks (Ohio Development Services Agency Office of Energy Grant/Agreement OOE-CDO-D-13-22) (2013-2017). As part of a collaborative program with industry to characterize potential reservoirs and containment zones for CO₂ storage within the Cambrian-Ordovician sequence in the Upper Ohio River Valley, Mr. Kelley planned and conducted open borehole hydraulic testing in six newly drilled brine disposal wells in the study area, including dynamic flow-meter tests to identify candidate CO₂ storage zones and injection fall-off tests to quantify hydraulic properties of the identified zones. As a result of this work, three candidate CO₂ storage zones were identified and correlated across a multi-county region in the study area.